The Hawke Research Institute working papers were published from 2000 to 2008. They showcase the work of University of South Australia researchers and visiting scholars relating to the institute's themes. Papers 110 and 1221 can be ordered in hard copy (free of charge) from Kate Leeson, the Hawke Editor. All papers can be viewed here using Adobe Acrobat Reader.
This is the story of a village that has been left behind by India's economic transformation, where the poor must struggle with environmental disaster, dispossession and overpriced food and fuel. But with some help from a government-funded poverty-alleviation program, some of the village women have been able to take control of their working lives and increase their income. They have been able to use the cattle dung that is poisoning their village as a source of income. This paper discusses the successes and shortcomings of the program, and the further reforms that are needed to improve the lives of these women.
Rapid economic development and globalisation are polarising the societies of developing nations. India's recent economic reforms have caused what has been hailed as an economic miracle, but it has only increased income inequality. The majority of Indians have been untouched by modernisation, the knowledge economy and the IT boom, but they are still a strong electoral force. Also, social tensions and even violence will increase if the gap between rich and poor continues to widen. India cannot afford to continue on its current economic path. It needs a number of reforms in economic policy, administration and education to give capitalism a 'human face' and to make the most of India's immense human capital.
Nancy A Naples
This paper considers how to generate political strategies that facilitate the development of broad-based coalitions across differences. To do this it is necessary both to link local organising to international efforts and to translate strategies developed internationally to benefit local movements. The paper concludes that intersectional feminist praxis provides a valuable framework for cross-border activism of many kinds. Intersectional feminist praxis can guide activists and scholars to recognise the borders around us and the functions they serve, and to discern which ones need to be challenged.
This paper offers a description of and a contribution to a theory about the sector of out-of-school (non-formal) educational provision for young people. Focusing particularly on arts and culturally based activities, it surveys the forms and structures of such provision and explores how it is used in a range of policy contexts, especially those aiming to redress social exclusion and promote economic regeneration. This is contextualised within a consideration of how out-of-school education could form part of the overall ecology of education provision offered to young people in the community. It draws on examples of study, research and evaluation from around the world. It is aimed at education administrators, academics, researchers, practitioners and social policy makers, and attempts to offer a coherent overview of a crucial but neglected part of what should constitute the educational sector in the global, post-industrialised world.
September 11 has revived the impetus to advance democracy and foster freedom around the globe. The repressive nature of closed, unaccountable regimes has been cited as a breeding ground for instability and terrorism. A number of western governments have argued that meeting human rights goals and advancing democratic rule would increase the potential of citizens to resolve differences through discussion, compromise and the ballot box rather than through the use of violence. Yet in referring to the moral and strategic aims of democracy promotion and the likelihood of achieving counter-terrorism goals, external actors such as Australia and the US must not oversell their ability to export democracy abroad. A more productive and less parochial mix involves a detailed appreciation of local circumstances and harsh realities. While advancing democracy remains a worthy foreign policy goal, it will often take a protracted period to judge whether the use of external power and foreign assistance can bring peace and democracy or indeed ameliorate the conditions that breed terrorism.
This paper explores some of the limits of the idea of sustainability and sustainability writing. It wrestles with what could be described as the dark side of sustainability. It invokes those things that haunt sustainability: destruction, failure, anxiety, waste. This paper presents the monsters of sustainability in terms of a style of writing. It argues, in its own way, for a necessary relationship with the monsters of sustainability. It displays the aesthetic and intellectual waste of sustainability, found at the time of sustainability, and in the darkness of an unsustainable place.
How the social can be imagined in a time of terror is the subject of this paper.
Sustainable societies are dependent on a utopian imagination that entails the visualisation of hope and desire. Sustainable societies also need to acknowledge and negotiate with the failure, waste and melancholy that is equally present in the utopian imagination. In times of crisis however the state seeks to control radical forms of social imagining. One point where imagination and the laws of the state coincide is in definitions of treason. Treason has sometimes, historically, been defined as a criminal imagining, an imagining of the death of the king. When the state imagines itself to be threatened, historically, embracing social waste and ruin becomes a problem to be criminalised. There is a suppression of failure and waste in the social imagination of the state that wages war on terror. There is an inability to imagine the social in a comprehensive way, in a way that allows for ambiguity, enchantment, sacrifice and destruction. There is a danger in the social imagination that refuses to look at the disaster and ruin that are its necessary companions. Between sacrifice and treason are the apparently modest proposals of a social sustainability that neither idealises nor attempts to annihilate these extreme affiliations.
JaneMaree Maher and Jo Lindsay
Critical accounts of working mothers emphasise conflict, guilt and career disruptions. Yet the labour market participation rates of employed mothers continue to increase. There is emerging evidence that women are developing new models for combining paid work and mothering. These models focus on transferable skills and the integration of necessary labour. Focusing on guilt may limit our understandings of how women themselves are reforming their mothering and employment, and may limit our capacity to produce policies to support them.
This paper explores current and potential relationships between religious belief, global ethics and social sustainability. It argues that work towards achieving sustainability (theoretical and active) must begin to take into account that the majority of the world's population are adherents to a religious belief of some kind. All major religions contain ideas about the responsibilities of the individual toward the environment and toward other people, and agendas for achieving sustainability are currently running parallel to these ideas. While religious belief has frequently been studied with respect to environmental sustainability, work on religion and sustainable societies is limited by the lack of methodological tools with which to explore the relationship. The paper provides an overview of current research, and suggests a comparative methodology for a research project into religion and sustainability policy.
Scholars in the eco-humanities contend that the greatest impediments to environmental change at a time of ecological crisis are cultural, and yet the fictional stories that circulate in our society are often considered ecologically disengaged. This paper responds to suggestions that contemporary Australian fiction, in particular, is failing to take up these concerns. It suggests that the kind of representations that are familiar in environmental discourse of a world condemned to environmental decline and looming catastrophe restrict the role of fiction in an environmental ethics. If we look outside this paradigm, however, the possibilities for Australian literature as a site of ecological engagement open up.
Susan Greenfield and panellists (Kate Leeson, ed.)
There are some differences between women's and men's brains, both in the structure and the chemicals present, but the differences between individuals can be even greater. In any case, it is difficult to draw any conclusions about which physical or chemical differences cause which behaviours, or indeed which learned behaviours cause which differences in the brain. In this paper Baroness Professor Susan Greenfield discusses gender and the brain with panellists from South Australian universities, the public service, a union and an Aboriginal cultural institute. The discussion covers gender, race and culture, management styles, institutionalised sexism and racism, learning styles, the future of work and dementia. It concludes with thoughts on how to make workplaces more inclusive and effective, and how to create policy through a 'gendered lens'. We need to decide what sort of society we want, Susan argues, before we can ask scientists to help provide it.
Since the emergence of widespread concerns over environmental degradation in the 1960s, a great deal of work has been put into the concept of environmental 'sustainability'. More recently, economic and social sustainability have been adopted as additional and interrelated concerns. Sustainability is now a broad multi-focal agenda, and terms such as 'triple bottom line' and 'sustainable development' are being used interchangeably. As a result, 'sustainability' is in danger of carrying so many implications and nuances that in order for it to be properly understood it must be defined whenever it is used.
The Hawke Research Institute at the University of South Australia is adopting 'sustainable societies' as a common research agenda. This working paper explores some of the current thinking around social sustainability and attempts to provide a framework for future discussions of the social sustainability agenda within the institute. The paper focuses on social sustainability as distinct from environmental or economic sustainability, as previous all-encompassing definitions of sustainability that include all three aspects have been too broad to be usefully applied in specific contexts. It also argues the need for a careful evaluation of the process of defining social sustainability. In order for such a process to be fruitful we should consider why we need a definition (or definitions), and what sort of definitions will be most useful for the purposes of research collaboration.
This paper outlines research into the micropolitical strategies used by five school leadership teams in the South Australian School-Based Research and Reform Project. The research results challenge many of the orthodoxies of educational managerialism. For example:
The paper analyses local school reform initiatives through a micropolitical frame. Micropolitical knowledge and insight are critical to the development of school practices that use the 'positive politics' of negotiation, collaboration and conflict resolution to address issues of local concern in schools, rather than the 'controlling politics' of new managerialism.
Rhonda Sharp and Sanjugta Vas Dev
Gender-responsive budgets are an important strategy for scrutinising budgets' contribution to gender equality. They use a variety of tools to assess the impact of government expenditure and revenue on the social and economic position of men and women. In the past, though, most initiatives have focused on the gender analysis of budgets, not on actually changing the budget decision-making process.
This paper examines a project undertaken in the small Pacific country of the Republic of the Marshall Islands that sought to combine gender budget analysis with promoting change in the budget decision-making process. The paper outlines the methodological approach underpinning the initiative, discussing its evolution, implementation and outcomes. It concludes with the lessons other such programs can learn from this initiative. These include the importance of promoting local ownership of projects that are initiated externally, for example by allowing local participants to shape a proposal to suit the local context. It also discusses the importance of fostering the involvement of civil society. Above all it explains how the project attempted to bridge the gap between a gender analysis of budgets and the promotion of budgetary and policy change.
Environmental management has traditionally taken place within the bounds of the nation-state, with no obligation to consider neighbouring countries or the world as a whole. Many issues cannot be adequately addressed in this context. For example, the conservation of marine mammals requires the protection of critical habitat beyond state jurisdictions. States, international organisations and global civil society need to work together in each region to create flexible regional regimes to meet the needs of ocean species. This paper discusses the principle of ecosystem-based management and the concept of regional regimes to show how global civil society can lead the way in species and ecosystem protection.
Susan Himmelweit and Maria Sigala
A revised version of this paper has been published as Susan Himmelweit and Maria Sigala, 'Choice and the relationship between identities and behaviour for mothers with pre-school children: some implications for policy from a UK study', Journal of Social Policy, vol 33, no 3, 2004, pp 455478.
This paper reports on the findings and policy implications of a study that used both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate mothers' decision making with respect to the interlinked issues of the care of their preschool children and their own employment. Mothers were found to have both internal and external constraints to their decisions. In the three areas of finances, childcare and working time both personal identities and external circumstances limited mothers' choices. However, neither external circumstances nor identities were fixed. Behaviour and identities therefore adjusted to each other, creating feedback effects at both the individual and the social level.
While the constraints of identity limit the direct effectiveness of some policies, positive feedback enhances the long-term effectiveness of others. In particular, the 'policy multiplier', the ratio of indirect to direct effects, is likely to be greater for enabling policies that lift existing constraints than for coercive polices that impose new constraints on mothers' behaviour. The paper examines the implications of such feedback effects for developing policy that expands the choices available to mothers in the short-term, reduces the costs of motherhood and meets the government's long-term objectives of reducing child poverty and increasing employment.
Jane Kenway, Elizabeth Bullen and Simon Robb
This paper reveals some of the ways in which education and education policy are changing under the pressures of globalisation, and some new issues that this places on the education agenda. It brings together ideas from several disciplines to shed light on the multi-dimensional ways in which education is being reshaped, and it focuses on some subtle links between economic, political and cultural globalisation that have not figured much in educational discussion. We look at both the integrating aspects of globalisation and the fragmenting and tribalising aspects, and the competing pressures that they are creating. We also discuss some responses of nation-states to such pressures, with a particular focus on hybridising responses.
National education systems are under pressure from all sides: from above and below, from the rich and the poor, from consumers and protestors. But perhaps the most pressure comes from globalism and consumerism. Many of the hybridised educational forms that have arisen in nation-states as a result of such pressures serve the global and labour elite. We conclude that education for participation in a global knowledge economy does not necessarily support inclusion in a global knowledge society.
ISBN 0 86803 820 2
The early Europeans perceived water and land in Australia in ways that led them to over-allocate and overuse water. As a result of this misperception Australians as a whole need to devise new policies to ensure that water allocation is within principles requiring environmental, social and economic sustainability. This will involve reduction of water allocations to growers and significant changes to pricing structures for urban users and industry. Environmental factors need to be measured and hard choices need to be made.
ISBN 0 86803 819 9
The Aboriginal art revolution of the last three decades is the singly most significant art movement in recorded Australian art history. This paper is a meditation on the process of coming to terms with the implications of the revolution. This has occasioned a new cultural condition in Australia, which therefore requires a name. How shall the non-Indigenous speak of it? How may we imagine its future and, with it, our own? This paper attempts to sketch a new cultural condition with art at its core and justice as its guide.
ISBN 0 86803 818 0
Deborah Bird Rose
This paper takes up the challenge of our position in 'new world' settler societies and seeks a decolonising form of situated justice that brings reconciliation between settlers and Indigenous people together with reconciliation with nature. The paper examines a case study of a fight for a forest in New South Wales. It is a story of an Aboriginal sacred site, of reconciliation, and of alternatives to the status quo that exist in contested places such as forests. It shows us how to imagine alternative futures, and thus how we might work step by step toward decolonisation.
ISBN 0 86803 817 2
This paper demonstrates the connection between the inner logic and the concerns of the Hebrew bible, and the central market metaphor of contemporary mainstream economics. They have overlapping concerns, they both establish taboos that are essential to 'right living', and both the bible and public policy seek to sustain the existing social/sexual order. As a result, the market of mainstream economics resembles the biblical figure 'Yahweh'. This explains the staying power of mainstream economics: consumers of mainstream economics are seduced by the hidden likeness to sacred text.
ISBN 0 86803 816 4
The impact of settler presence and activity on Aboriginal health status has been profound. In common with similar impacts in other settled countries worldwide, the dislocation and disruption of a 'traditional' way of life, coupled with immersion in an inherently unhealthy 'settled' way of life, has meant Aboriginal people now experience very poor health status. This paper examines the extent and magnitude of this differential, its causes and, most importantly, what can be done to address it.
ISBN 0 86803 815 6
Mbulelo Vizikhungo Mzamane
The 'African renaissance' is one of the latest buzzwords to come out of South Africa, and it now plays an important part in ANC policy. The phrase suggests that Africans are continuing to rise out of slavery, colonialism, segregation and neo-colonialism and into liberation. This paper traces the history of the liberation struggles of people of African descent worldwide. It then examines South African President Thabo Mbeki's vision for a truly liberated Africa of the future.
This working paper is an abridged version of a much longer paper that Mbulelo Mzamane wrote while he was a visiting scholar at the Hawke Research Institute in 2001. The longer version is available here in Word (224 kb).
ISBN 0 86803 814 8
This paper explores the liberal logic that is used to promote globalisation, and relies on Charles Taylor's communitarian republicanism to consider how it might be possible to moderate some of its more obvious adverse global effects. More particularly, the article explores liberal and communitarian proposals for reform of global governance beginning with Kant's famous argument for perpetual peace. This argument is then extended through communitarian arguments to create moral progress and understanding in the world order. The purpose of this theoretical exercise is to create a dialogue concerning how we might moderate adverse effects of globalisation on communities.
ISBN 0 86803 813 X
Migrant workers from the poorest Asian countries are being drawn to Malaysia in search of employment. Most of these workers are women and many find employment as maids. These domestic workers are not covered by employment or social security legislation, and they are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse from their employers. This paper calls for action from unions and NGOs to ensure that decent conditions of work are provided for all Malaysian workers.
ISBN 0 86803 812 1
This paper defines ethics as the very practical activity of applying one's chosen values in daily life, thus making an understanding of ethics an essential requirement for any managers, winemakers, engineers, accountants, lawyers or marketers who are trying to live up to the hopes of their professions. The paper describes several factors to be taken into account when nurturing the careers of managers and other business professionals and when designing professional and ethics material for inclusion in training and development programs. In doing so it shows that corporate ethical practice can be a competitive advantage in global markets.
ISBN 0 86803 811 3
Ed Carson and Ben Wadham
This paper has been published as 'Regionalism and contractualism: when principles collide' in Just Policy, no 24, December 2001, pp 311.
New public sector management principles promote a search for efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery through, first, implementing principles of subsidiarity and, second, the creation of quasi-markets in the public sector. By considering developments in employment services in South Australia, this paper explores the tension between the regulatory demands of a public choice model of compulsory tendering and a state objective to build regional corporate identities by building up social capital in the regions. The paper argues that this tension highlights a systematic and structural inconsistency in the neo-liberal project.
ISBN 0 86803 810 5
Over the past century our society has experienced ecological decline and the loss of a sense of community under the influence of increasing individualism and short-term, market-based economic values. In contrast, the Kaurna people maintained rich social lives and ecological sustainability over tens of thousands of years, due to their commitment to the principle of reciprocity with others, the environment and the Dreaming. We have much to learn from the Kaurna wisdom as we search for an ecologically, socially and culturally sustainable path for our future.
ISBN 0 86803 809 1
Technology offers the potential to free people with a disability from dependence and immersion in interventionist/therapeutic regimes of the past by enabling them to participate more fully in society and to take an active and creative role in their own embodiment. In order to facilitate this process, a clearer understanding of the perceptions of risk and apprehension that these people experience is essential. Determining the nature and extent of such fears will facilitate techno-cultural participation, and offer people with a disability a stronger sense of citizenship.
ISBN 0 86803 808 3
Rick Sarre, Meredith Doig and Brenton Fiedler
Setting legal and administrative rules to control the risk of corporate irresponsibility, either by legislation or by organisational guidelines and policies, may be necessary, but it is not sufficient, to establish and entrench corporate accountability. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how corporate entities can and should develop a 'culture' of corporate social responsibility in order to reduce the risks associated with irresponsible practices. Corporate social responsibility principles and initiatives can be delivered by a range of facilitators, including governments, industries and regulatory bodies. They can also be used for the purpose of enhancing corporate governance. The authors illustrate the manner in which corporate social responsibility initiatives can and should become fundamental tools of risk assessment and risk management in modern corporate practice.
ISBN 0 86803 807 5
The mental health of refugee populations is influenced by global catastrophic events, by emotional connections with former homelands, and by local conditions and events. Health and human service workers who work with refugees must therefore take local and global contexts into account, and should recognise the importance of promoting tolerance locally. The case study used in this paper is the experiences of Serbian Australians during the Balkan conflict, and how they managed the interplay between homeland events, media reports, cultural identity and mental health issues.
ISBN 0 86803 806 7
Margaret Brown, Justin Beilby and Eric Gargett
This study explores the issues that South Australian general practitioners must consider when introducing advance directives to their patients. There is a lack of information available to assist people to make complex decisions about their dying. General practitioners could assist older patients to understand their choices and how advance directives might enable them to maintain some control, autonomy and dignity as they face death.
ISBN 0 86803 805 9
Lois Bryson and Alison Mackinnon
This paper provides a summary of key points to emerge from the research papers presented at the workshop 'Population, gender and reproductive choice: the motherhood questions', held in Adelaide in February 2000. The paper includes perspectives from a range of disciplines, including demography, economics, history, psychology and sociology. It sets out recommendations for policy on issues such as improving women's family formation choices, valuing children as a 'public good', improving child care arrangements, recognising the needs of carers, promoting education about and access to contraception, and promoting equitable and family-friendly workplaces.
ISBN 0 86803 804 0
Corporate reputations are valuable, contributing both to a corporation's wealth and its competitive advantage. They are also, however, extremely vulnerable to the vagaries of stakeholder activists. In effect, reputation has been politicised: a crucial element in the battle over corporate behaviour around social justice, workplace reform, environmental sustainability and community development. While most of the research on corporate reputation is located in business and management, this paper delineates a greater role for the social sciences. With corporations increasingly seeing themselves as both the agents and the site of social change it is necessary to challenge the assumptions behind their strategies, to politicise their behaviour and question their goals. To this end, this paper examines whether corporate reputations are likely to be a useful lever for bringing about sustainable social change.
ISBN 0 86803 803 2
In a recent draft report on Australia's gambling industry, the Australian Productivity Commission found that, on balance, gambling has a positive impact on Australia's economy. This paper analyses the economic benefits and costs of gambling in Australia, while also acknowledging that it is very difficult to assign a monetary value to social and personal costs. It concludes that, if the position of 'problem gamblers' (those addicted to gambling) is included in the analysis, gambling may well be an economic burden to our society.
ISBN 0 86803 802 4
This paper has been published in Spanish under the title 'Economíca y politíca de la auditoría de presupuestos gubernamentales según sus efectos de género' in Investigación Económica, no 236, AprilJune 2001, pp 4576.
There has been a growing interest by researchers, governments, international agencies and women's organisations in analysing government budgets for their economic and social impacts on women and men, and on different groups of women and men. This has been fuelled by several factors, including evidence of growing inequalities as a result of globalisation, economic restructuring and government policy responses, a discourse of government transparency and accountability which has facilitated auditing and monitoring strategies, and feminist critiques of conventional macro-economics. This paper traces the development of gender-sensitive budget audits and their distinguishing features. It discusses the economic and political rationales for these exercises and the insights that are beginning to emerge from them. It concludes that realising the potential of these exercises to scrutinise government activities for their gender and class impacts requires contesting both orthodox economic ideas and policies and conventional budgetary politics.
ISBN 0 86803 801 6
The university is in ruins, suggests Bill Readings, and to dwell in the ruins of the university at the turn of the millennium means, inter alia, reconfiguring disciplinary spaces and creating new groupings of knowledges in response to the forces of economic globalisation. This raises interesting questions about the nature of knowledge and the construction of disciplinary knowledges and the possibilities for a dynamic interdisciplinarity in the 'new humanities'.
This paper is the text of Claire Woods' inaugural professorial lecture. It explores the place of the territory of communication and writing within the current university context. Where do the theoretical and pedagogical concerns fit specifically into the University of South Australia but more generally into the academy? How have we made this territory in practice? How have we grouped knowledges to create a project in communication and writing? What and whose footprints are on this territory?
ISBN 0 86803 800 8
Marjorie Griffin Cohen
At the end of February 2000 a new round of World Trade Organisation negotiations began, focusing on trade in services. The WTO has identified a number of 'barriers' to free trade in education services which it aims to eliminate. These include the existence of government monopolies, restrictions on recruiting foreign teachers and substantial government subsidies for local institutions. Eliminating these 'barriers' would require substantial changes to the public higher education system, including a reduction in public funding and a requirement that it pursue 'commercial objectives'. These negotiations are proceeding with very little public scrutiny, leaving higher education in Australia vulnerable to external commercial pressures.