Professor Bill Skinner
Tel: +61 8 8302 3690
Fax: +61 8 8302 3683
Research Professor of Interface Analysis and Synchrotron Science
BSc Melbourne BAppSc PhD RMIT
Bill Skinner completed his PhD while lecturing in Applied Physics at RMIT. He then jointed the Australian Antarctic Division working as a Field Glaciologist with the Ice Core Drilling Program over a period of two years. He joined The Wark in 1992 working on the surface chemistry and physics of minerals and materials.
Majority of activity is in the study of physical and chemical processes at surfaces and interfaces. In particular, mineral and material surface chemistry together with forensics, environmental science and biomaterials. To this end, Bill employs advanced surface spectroscopy/spectrometry, including the wide-ranging application of synchrotron science.
These includes Surface and near surface analytical techniques - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and synchrotron radiation XPS (SR-XPS), soft and hard X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), scanning Auger microscopy (SAM), Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), X-ray Fluorescence Microprobe (XFM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), etc.
Since joining The Wark, a major focus has been in the fundamental properties of mineral surfaces and the impact of bulk structure on surface reaction (oxidation, dissolution metal ion activation and molecular adsorption). This has been in parallel with applied research in mineral processing strategies across all aspects of the industry, including advanced mineralogy, grinding/attritioning chemistry, conditioning, pulp and surface chemistry in flotation and physical separation, leaching/dissolution, water chemistry, flocculation/settling, agglomeration, etc.
Current and Recent Projects
AMIRA P260F - Influence of Process Mineralogy and Pulp Chemistry on the Flotation of Fine and Coarse Minerals, Skinner and Zanin.
ARC Linkage - Collection of Coarse, Composite Particles by Bubbles in Flotation, Skinner, Zanin, White, Fornasiero and Leal.
ARC Discovery - Synthesis and Characterisation of Cadmium-Free Quantum Dots, Nann and Skinner.
ARC Discovery - Patchy colloidosomes at interfaces: correlation of particle surface heterogeneity, wettability and chemical activity at the nanoscale, Wang, Beattie, Skinner, Whitby, Priest, Liz-Marzan, Bao and Xinhe.
CSIRO Cluster Grant - Preconcentration and Agglomeration to Enhance Heap Leaching of Nickel Laterite, Ralston, Addai-Mensah, Skinner, Fornasiero, Liu, Franks, Klein and Pawlik.
NH&MRC - Synchrotron X-ray assessment of airway surface physiology for cystic fibrosis, Parsons, Siu, Donnelley and Skinner.
ARC LIEF - Multi-purpose facility for enhanced complex ore beneficiation and waste material recycling, Addai-Mensah, Skinner, Zanin, Yung and Grano.
ARC LIEF - High performance EPMA optimised for the microanalysis of sulphides and heavy elements, Brugger, Hand, Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Lenehan, Thomkins, Skinner and Ehrig.
ARC LIEF - Versatile Scanning X-ray Microscopy Facility at the Australian Synchrotron, Nugent, Peele, Dastoor, Skinner, Gates, Masters, Tilley, Heraud, Lay, Cowie and Paterson.
ARC LIEF - Equipment for Metastable Induced Electron Spectroscopy: Surface analysis with excellent surface sensitivity, Andersson, Griesser, Metha, Warr, Singh Skinner, Quinton and Liu.
Councillor - Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering 2000-2003
Chair - Australian Synchrotron Research Program - Taiwan Specialist Committee 2000-2008
Chair (inaugural) - Australian Synchrotron Soft X-ray Spectroscopy Program Advisory Committee 2007-2011
Standards Australia Committee for ISO/TC 201 Technical Committee for Surface Spectroscopy 1998-present
Centre for Australian Forensic Soil Science (CAFSS) Board Member 2006-present
Australian Synchrotron Users Group 2008-2009
Australian Synchrotron Soft X-ray Microscopy Beamline Advisory Panel (BAP) 2007-present
Commissioning Team for the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) Soft X-ray Endstation at NSRRC Taiwan
Adjunct Research Professor appointment, Earth Sciences, University of Western Ontario, Canada 2004-present
Publications (2005 - May 2012)
Nosrati, A., Addai-Mensah, J. and Skinner, W., Rheological behaviour of muscovite clay slurries: Effect of water quality and solution speciation, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 102-103, 89-98 (2012)
Nosrati, A., Addai-Mensah, J. and Skinner, W., Gelation of aqueous clay mineral dispersions leaching at low pH: Effect of mineral/pulp composition and temperature, Powder Technology, 223, 98-104 (2012)
Nosrati, A., Addai-Mensah, J. and Skinner, W., Muscovite clay mineral particle interactions in aqueous media, Powder Technology, 219, 228-238 (2012)
Walsh, R. B., Nelson, A., Skinner, W. M., Parsons, D., Craig, V. S. J., Van Der Waals and Diffuse double layer Forces between titanium dioxide surfaces produced by Atomic Layer Deposition, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116, 7838-7847 (2012)
Brito E Abreu, S. and Skinner, W.M., Determination of advancing and receding contact angles, silane coverage and hydrophobicity heterogeneity using ToF-SIMS: the case of methylated quartz surfaces, Langmuir, accepted April 22nd (2012)
Nosrati, A., Addai-Mensah, J. and Skinner, W., Rheology of Aging Aqueous Muscovite Clay Dispersions, Chemical Engineering Science, 66(2), 119-127 (2011)
Brito E Abreu, S. and Skinner, W.M., ToF-SIMS-derived hydrophobicity in DTP flotation of chalcopyrite: Contact angle distributions in flotation streams, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 98(1-2), 35-41 (2011)
Brito E Abreu, S. and Skinner, W.M., Predicting the surface chemistry contribution to the flotation recovery of chalcopyrite by ToF-SIMS, Minerals Engineering, 24(2), 160-168 (2011)
Qian, G., Xia, F., Brugger, J., Skinner, W.M., Bei, J., Chen, G., Pring, A., Replacement of pyrrhotite by pyrite and marcasite under hydrothermal conditions up to 220oC: An experimental study of reaction textures and mechanisms, American Mineralogist, 96, 1878-1893 (2011).
Nann, T., Skinner, W.M., Quantum dots for electro-optic devices, ACS Nano, 5(7), 5291-5295 (2011)
Nosrati, A., Addai-Mensah, J. and Skinner, Influence of Mineral Chemistry on Electrokinetic and Rheological Behavior of Aqueous Muscovite Dispersions, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 50(19), 11087-11096 (2011)
Denman, J.A., Skinner, W.M., Kirkbride, K.P., Kempson, I.M., Organic and inorganic discrimination of ballpoint pen inks by ToF-SIMS and multivariate statistics, Applied Surface Science, 256(7), 2155-2163 (2010)
Badalyan, A., Bromball, R., Pendleton, P., Skinner, W., An assessment of activated carbon cloth microporosity change due to chemical activation, Carbon, 48(4), 1004-1011 (2010).
Kempson, I.M., Skinner, W.M. and Martin, R.R., Changes in the Metal Content of Human Hair during Diagenesis from 500 Years Exposure to Glacial and Aqueous Environments, Archaeometry, 52(3), 450-466 (2010)
Donnelley, M., Morgan, K.S., Fouras, A., Skinner, W., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Siu, K.K.W. and Parsons, D.W., A new technique to examine individual particle and fibre deposition and transit behaviour in live mouse trachaea, Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 17(6), 719-729 (2010)
Goh, S.W., Buckley, A.N., Skinner, W.M., Fan, L-J., An X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopic investigation of the electronic structure of cubanite, CuFe2S3 , Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 37, 389-405 (2010)
Brito E Abreu, S., Brien, C., Skinner, W.M., ToF-SIMS as a new method to determine the contact angle of mineral surfaces, Langmuir, 26(11), 8122-8130 (2010).
Qian, G., Brugger, J., Skinner, W.M., Chen, G., Pring, A., Hydrothermal replacement of magnetite by pyrite up to 300oC, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74(19), 5610-5630 (2010)
Ye, X., Gredelj, S., Skinner, W., Grano, S., Regrinding sulphide minerals ? Breakage mechanisms in milling and their influence on surface properties and flotation behaviour, Powder Technology, 203(2), 133-147 (2010)
Ye, X., Gredelj, S., Skinner, W., Grano, S., Evidence for Surface Cleaning of Sulphide Minerals by Attritioning in Stirred Mills, Minerals Engineering, 23(11-13), 937-944 (2010)
Harmer, S.L., Skinner, W.M., Buckley, A.N., Fan, L-J., Species formed at cuprite fracture surfaces; observation of O 1s surface core level shift, Surface Science, 603, 537-545 (2009)
Qian, G., Pring, A., Brugger, J., Skinner, W.M., Chen, G., Replacement of magnetite by pyrite under hydrothermal conditions, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 101(1), 83pp (2009)
Smith, E., Kempson, I., Juhasz, A., Weber, J., Skinner, W.M. and Gr?e, M., Localization and speciation of arsenic and trace elements in rice tissues, Chemosphere, 76(4), 529-535 (2009)
Beattie, D.A., Kempson, I.M., Fan, L-J. and Skinner, W.M., Synchrotron XPS studies of collector adsorption and co-adsorption on gold and gold-silver alloy surfaces, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 92(3-4), 162-168 (2009)
Donnelley, M., Morgan, K.S., Fouras, A., Skinner, W., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Siu, K.K.W. and Parsons, D.W., Real-time non-invasive detection of inhalable particulates delivered into live mouse airways, Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 16(4), 553-561 (2009)
Buckley, A.N., Skinner, W.M., Harmer, S.L., Pring, A., Fan, L-J., Electronic environment of Cu in carrollite, CuCo2S4, determined by soft X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(15), 4452-4467 (2009)
Nosrati, A., Addai-Mensah, J., Skinner, W., pH-mediated interfacial chemistry and particle interactions in aqueous muscovite dispersions, Chemical Engineering Journal, 152(2-3), 406-414 (2009)
Cook, N.J., Ciobanu, C.L., Pring, A., Skinner, W., Shimizu, M., Danyushevsky, L., Saini-Eidukat, B. & Melcher, F., Trace and minor elements in sphalerite: a LA-ICPMS study, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(16), 4761-4791 (2009)
Sung, Y.H., Brugger, J., Ciobanu, C., Pring, A., Skinner, W., Nugus, M., Invisible gold in arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite from a multistage Archaean gold deposit: Sunrise Dam, Eastern Goldfields Province, Western Australia, Mineralium Deposita, 44(7), 765-791 (2009). Journal: A, IF = 2.037
Buckley, A.N., Goh, S.W., Skinner, W.M., Woods, R., Fan, L-J., Interaction of cuprite with dialkyl dithiophosphates, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 93(2), 155-164 (2009)
Zanin, M., Ametov, I., Grano, S., Lin, Z. & Skinner, W., A study of mechanisms affecting molybdenite recovery in a bulk copper/molybdenum flotation circuit, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 93(3-4),256-266 (2009)
Coumbaros, J., Kirkbride, K. P., Klass, G. & Skinner, W., Application of Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry to the in situ analysis of ballpoint pen Inks on paper, Forensic Science International, 193(1-3), 42-46 (2009)
Denman, J.A., Kempson, I.M., Kirkbride, K.P. & Skinner, W.M., Discrimination of pencil markings on paper using elemental analysis, Forensic Science International, 175, 123-129 (2008)
Priest, C., Stevens, N., Sedev, R., Skinner, W., Ralston, R., Inferring wettability of heterogeneous surfaces by ToF-SIMS, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 320, 563-568 (2008)
Coumbaros, J., Denman, J., Kirkbride, K. P., Walker, G. S. & Skinner, W., An Investigation into the Spatial Elemental Distribution within a Pane of Glass by Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Forensic Science, 53(2), 312-320 (2008)
Grafe, M., Beattie, D.A., Smith, E.R., Skinner, W.M., Singh, B., Copper and arsenate co-sorption at the mineral-water interfaces of goethite and jarosite, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 322(2), 399-413 (2008)
Beattie, D.A., Chapelet, J.K., Grafe, M., Skinner, W.M., Smith, E., In situ ATR-FTIR particle film studies of sulphate adsorption in the presence of Cu(II), Environmental Science and Technology, 42 (24), pp 9191?9196 (2008)
Prestidge, C.A., Barnes, T.J. and Skinner, W.M., ToF-SIMS for the Surface Characterization of Solid State Pharmaceuticals, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 59, 251-259 (2007)
Newell, A.J.H., Skinner, W.M. and Bradshaw, D.J., Restoring the floatability of oxidised sulfides using sulfidisation, International Journal of Mineral Processing, Peter King Tribute Issue, 84(1-4), 108-117 (2007)
Prestidge, C.A., Barnes, T.J., Mierczynska-Vasilev, Skinner, W.M., Peddie, F., Hian Lau, C. & Barnett, C., Loading and release of a model protein from porous silicon powders, Physica Status Solidi A, 204(10), 3361-3366 (2007)
Kempson, I.M., Skinner, W.M. Kirkbride. K.P., The occurance and incorporation of Cu and Zn in hair and their potential role as bio-indicators. A review. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B, 10(8), 611-622 (2007)
von Oertzen, G.U., Skinner, W.M., Nesbitt, H.W., Pratt, A.R. & Buckley, A.N., Cu adsorption on pyrite (100): Ab initio and spectroscopic study, Surface Science, 601, 5794-5799 (2007)
Buckley, A.N., Skinner, W.M., Harmer, S.L.,Pring, A., Fan, L-J. and Yang, Y-W., Examination of the proposition that Cu(II) can be required for charge neutrality in a sulfide lattice; Cu in tetrahedrites and sphalerite, Canadian Journal of Chemistry Special Issue, 85, 767-781 (2007)
Sung, Y-H, Ciobanu, C.L. Pring, A. Brugger, J., Skinner, W., Cook, N.J., Nugus, M., Tellurides from Sunrise Dam gold deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: a new occurrence of nagyagite, Mineralogy and Petrology, 91, 249-270 (2007)
Huang, G., Grano, G. and Skinner, W., Galvanic interaction between grinding media and arsenopyrite and its effect on flotation: Part II. Effect of grinding on flotation, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 78(3), 198-213 (2006)
Khmeleva, T.N., Chapelet, J.K., Skinner, W.M. and Beattie, D.A., Depression mechanisms of sodium bisulphite in the xanthate-induced flotation of copper activated sphalerite, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 79(1), 61-75 (2006)
von Oertzen, G.U., Skinner, W.M. and Nesbitt, H.W., Surface States of Pyrite (100): Ab initio and Spectroscopic Studies, with Implications for Reactivity, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 75(11), 1855-1860 (2006)
Goh, S.W., Buckley, A.N., Lamb, R.N., Skinner, W.M., Pring, A., Fan, L-J., Jang, L-Y., Lai, L-J. and Yang, Y-W., Sulfur electronic environments in α-NiS and β-NiS: Examination of the relationship between coordination number and core electron binding energies, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 33, 98-105 (2006)
Kempson, I.M., Skinner, W.M. and Kirkbride, K.P., Advanced analysis of metal distributions in human hair, Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 3423-3428 (2006)
Kumar, S. and Skinner, W.M., Plasma cleaning of a commercially available hydroxyapatite-coated external fixation pin by the radio frequency glow discharge technique, Journal of ASTM International, 3(3), (2006)
Weber, P.A., Skinner, W.M., Hughes, J.B., Lindsay, P. and Moore, T.A., Source of Ni in coal mine acid rock drainage, West Coast, New Zealand, International Journal of Coal Geology, 67(4), 214-220 (2006)
He, S., Fornasiero, D. and Skinner, W., Effect of oxidation potential and zinc sulphate on the separation of chalcopyrite from pyrite, International Journal of Mineral Processing, 80(2-4), 169-176 (2006)
von Oertzen, G.U., Harmer, S.L. and Skinner, W.M., XPS and ab initio calculation of surface states of sulfide minerals: pyrite, chalcopyrite and molybdenite, Molecular Simulation, 32(15), 1207?1212 (2006)
Martin, R.R., Kempson, I.M., Naftel, S.J. and Skinner, W.M., Preliminary synchrotron analysis of Pb in hair from a lead smelter worker, Chemosphere, 58, 1385?1390 (2005)
Kempson, I.M. and Skinner, W.M., ToF-SIMS analysis of elemental distributions in human hair, Science of the Total Environment, 338, 213-227 (2005)
Kempson, I.M., Kirkbride, K.P., Skinner, W.M. and Coumbaros, J., Applications of synchrotron radiation in forensic trace evidence analysis, Talanta, 67(2), 286-303 (2005)
Khmeleva, T.N., Skinner, W. and Beattie, D.A., Depressing mechanisms of sodium bisulphite in the collectorless flotation of copper-activated sphalerite, International Journal of Mineral Processing, Volume 76, Issues 1-2, 43-53 (2005)
Khmeleva, T.N., Georgiev, T.V., Jasieniak, M., Skinner, W.M. and Beattie, D.A., XPS and ToF-SIMS study of a chalcopyrite-pyrite-sphalerite mixture treated with xanthate and sodium bisulphite, Surface and Interface Analysis, 37, 699-709 (2005)
Weber, P.A., Thomas, J.E., Skinner, W.M. and Smart, R.St.C., A methodology to determine the acid-neutralization capacity of rock samples, Canadian Mineralogist, Volume 43, Number 4, 1183-1192 (2005)
Weber, P.A., Thomas, J.E., Skinner, W.M. and Smart, R.St.C., Calculated acid-base balance for H2O2 oxidation of carbonate-poor pyritic mine-rock, Canadian Mineralogist, Volume 43, Number 4, 1193-1203 (2005)
He, S., Fornasiero, D. and Skinner, W., Correlation between copper-activated pyrite flotation and surface species: Effect of pulp oxidation potential, Minerals Engineering, Volume 18, Issue 12, Pages 1208-1213, (2005)
Zakaznova-Iakovleva, V.P., Harmer, S.L., Nesbitt, H.W., Bancroft, G.M., Tse, J.S. and Skinner, W., High resolution valence band spectra of silicates, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69 (10): A41 Suppl. S, (2005)
Zakaznova-Iakovleva, V.P., Nesbitt, H.W., Bancroft, G.M., Tse, J.S., Gao, X. and Skinner, W., High Resolution Valence Band XPS Spectra of Quartz and Olivine, Physical Review B, Volume 72, Number 20, 205113 (2005)
von Oertzen, G.U., Skinner, W.M. and Nesbitt, H.W., Ab initio and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study of the bulk and surface electronic structure of pyrite (100) with implications for reactivity, Physical Review B, 72, 235427 (2005)